The earth spins around the sun once every year, the moon rotates around the earth once per lunar month, and planets of solar system likewise rotate around the sun, each in its own orbit. Law of revolution also applies to atoms where electrons move around it in an orbit. Since all matter in the universe consists of atoms, this means the law of revolution applies to everything.
This shows that revolution is a cosmic law. With a believer’s contemplation upon these facts, another picture of the revolution brings to one’s mind: the pilgrim’s circumambulation of the Kaaba, which is a fundamental custom of Hajj in Islam. Circumambulating around Kaabah is a symbolic act of worship which signifies submission to Allah the Almighty alone. Allah ﷻ states in the Quran:
“And (remember) when We showed Ibrahim the site of the (Sacred) House (the Kaaba at Makkah), saying: Ascribe not anything (in worship) with Me, and sanctify My House fo those who circumambulate it, and those who stand up (for prayer), and those who bow (submit themselves with humility and obedience to Allah), and make prostration (in prayer), And proclaim to mankind the Hajj (pilgrimage). They will come to you on foot and on every lean camel, they will come forim every deep and distant (wide) mountain highway (to perform Hajj), “(Al-Hajj, 22:26-27).
Circumambulating around Kaabah is known as Tawaaf. It is the utmost degree of love which shows that the believer wishes to sacrifice himself for the beloved Allah ﷻ. This demonstrates that believer wishes to prove that he desires nothing but Allah ﷻ.
How to perform Tawaaf
Tawaaf entails seven times circumambulations around Kaabah. Tawaaf is performed during Hajj and Umrah. It is the best form of ibadah. The intention of tawaaf is performed in the heart and there is no requirement to make intention audibly.
Kinds of Tawaaf
- Tawaaf ul Qudoom
This is a tawaaf of arrival for Hajj. This is performed by the pilgrims who have entered into the state of Ihram when they reach the Kaabah. Tawaaf ul Qudoom is a Sunnah for those who are performing Hajj Ifraad and Hajj Qiraan. Other names of Tawaaf ul Qudoom are Tawaaf Tahiyya and Tawaaf ul Liqa.
- Tawaaf ul Ziyarah
This type of tawaaf is compulsory for Hajj. The time to perform this tawaaf starts from the dawn of 10th Zilhijjah to 12th Zilhijjah. If this tawaaf is delayed sacrifice of an animal becomes wajib. Tawaaf ul Ziyarah is also called Tawaaf Rukn.
- Tawaaf ul Widaa
This is the last ritual performed before leaving Makkah. The time for this tawaaf starts after Tawaaf ul Ziyarah and ends when the pilgrim wishes to perform it. It is afdhal to perform this tawaaf while leaving the holy city of Makkah. Tawaaf ul Sadar and Tawaaf ul Rukhsat are other names of Tawaaf ul Widaa.
- Tawaaf ul Umrah
This tawaaf is obligatory in Umrah 2016 and performed as a part of rituals of Umrah. This tawaaf is performed by those hajjis who made intention for Hajj Tammattu.
- Tawaaf ul Nafl
This tawaaf can be performed at any time and many times as possible. Tawaaf ul Nafl is superior to nafl Salah in Mosque Haram. One should make use of his stay in Makkah by performing as much Nafl Tawaaf as possible.
- Tawaaf ul Tahiyyatul Masjid
This tawaaf is commendable for those who enter Mosque Haram.
- Tawaaf Nazr
This tawaaf is compulsory on those who make a promise of circumambulating the Kaabah if some requirements are fulfilled by Allah ﷻ.