There is a certain time in the Islamic year which is extra righteous than others. The 10th Muharram is such a day which is recognized as the day of Ashura. Following are some major things of this day found in the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah:
It is a Holy month
Allah mentions in the Holy Qur’an that there are 4 blessed months:
(Surah At-Tawbah, Verse 36)
And in a Hadith, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said,
“The year is 12 months of which 4 are holy, the 3 consecutive months of Dhul-Qa’dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumadah and Sha’ban.” (Sahih Al Bukhari)
The 4 blessed months are Dhul Qa’dah, Dhul Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab.
Prophet Musa (peace be upon him) and his community were saved on this day (Day Of Ashura)
On this day, Prophet Musa (peace be upon him) and the kids of Israel were saved from pharaon and his pursuing military.
(Surah Ash Shu’arah, Verses 63-68)
Prophet Nuh’s (peace be upon him) Ark take the break on Mount Judi on this holy day
In a narration reported by Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him), it was on this day that the Ark of Nuh (peace be upon him) take a break on Mount Judi. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir)
The Prophet would fast on this day yet before Prophet Hood
In a hadith in the Muwatta of Imam Malik (may Allah have mercy on him), it has been mentioned that in the age of unawareness (jahiliyyah), the tritheism of Makkah fast on this day. It may have been due to a ceremony of Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him).
Imam Al Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) says,
“Perhaps Quraysh get used to fast on that day on the basis of some earlier period law, such as that of Ibrahim, upon whom be peace.”
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ would also fast on this day before prophethood.
Fasting on 10th Muharram
The importance of the 10th Muharram was such that it was compulsory to fast on this day. The Prophet ﷺ and the companions would fast on this day before the compulsion was abrogated by the fasting of Ramadan.
Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) reported in a hadith:
“Allah’s messenger ordered (the Muslims) to fast on the day of Ashura, and when fasting in the month of Ramadan was given, it became optional for one to fast on that day (Ashura) or not. (Sahih Al Bukhari)
The Prophet ﷺ advised the Muslims to fast on this day
Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) said,
“The Prophet ﷺ came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of Ashura’. He asked, ‘What is this?’ They said, ‘This is a righteousness day, it is the day when Allah rescued the Children of Israel from their opponent, so Musa fasted on this day.’ He said, ‘We have more right to Musa than you,’so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day.” Sahih Al Bukhari
It is the greatest fast after the month of Ramadan
Fasting on the 10th Muharram (Day of Ashura) is the greatest fast after the month of Ramadan.
“The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: The best of fasting after the month of Ramadan is fasting Allah’s month of Muharram. (Sahih Muslim)
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) describe,
“I inquired the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: Which Prayer is the best after the compulsory Prayers? He said: Prayer during the mid of the night. I asked: Which fasting is the best after that of Ramadan? He said, The month of Allah that you call Muharram’” (Sahih Muslim)
The Prophet ﷺ emphasize it
Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) reported,
“I never saw the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) so keen to fast any day and give it priority over any other than this day, the day of Ashura, and this month, meaning Ramadhan.” (Sahih Al Bukhari)
A means of payment for sins
Fasting on this day is a means of having our sins being forgiven. Tawbah (repentant) is necessary for the main sins.
The Prophet ﷺ said,
“Fasting the day of ‘Arafah I hope Allah will expiate thereby for the year before it and the year after it, and fasting the day of Ashura I hope Allah will expiate by that means for the year that came before it.” (Sahih Muslim)
We must try to fast on the 10th Muharram and on the 9th too but we must keep in mind that it is not compulsory although there are huge qualities in doing so
Imam Ash-Shafi’i (may Allah have mercy on him) said,
“It is mustahab to fast on both the 9th Muharram and 10th Muharram, because the Prophet ﷺ fasted on the10th, and intended to fast on the 9th.”
Spend on the family unit on this day brings blessings
There are huge blessings to be gained all through the year for the one who is additional kind to his family:
The Messenger of Allah the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is reported that,
“One who generously spends on his family on the 10th of Muharram (Ashura), Allah will be generous on him for the entire year.” (Al-Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al-Iman)